Tuesday, September 12, 2017

Association between Blood Group Antigens, CD4 Cell Count and Haemoglobin Electrophoretic Pattern in HIV Infection

Bamisaye E.O1*,   Adepeju A.A2, Akanni E.O3, Akinbo D.B1, Omisore A.O4
1Haematology Division, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
2Chemical Pathology Laboratory, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria
3Haematology Division, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun state, Nigeria
4Haematology and Blood Group Serology Laboratory, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria
 *Address for Correspondence: Dr. Bamisaye E. Oluwaseyi, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Afe Babalola University, P.M.B- 5454, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

ABSTRACT- Introduction: Blood group antigens have been reported to be associated with many diseased conditions severally. Studies have suggested that ABO blood groups have an impact on infection status of the individuals possessing a particular blood group due to the significant associations observed when analyzed. However there is limited information on the relationship between these blood group antigens with haemoglobin genotype and CD4 cell count in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, hence the need for this study.
Materials and Method: Exactly 240 newly enrolled seropositive patients attending the HIV Clinic of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria and 120 healthy blood donors were recruited for this study. Antibodies to HIV were determined using determine rapid HIV 1/HIV 2 test kit (Abbott), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (GenScreen plus HIV Ag-Ab test kit, Paris) and Western blot (New-LAV Blot 1, BioRad, France) for confirmatory test. ABO and Rhesus blood grouping was determined by standard tile and tube techniques. Haemoglobin genotype determined by alkaline cellulose acetate haemoglobin electrophoresis while CD4 cell count was estimated with Partec Cyflow analyser.
Result: There is no significant association between the ABO/Rh antigens and haemoglobin genotypes of the test and control groups (P<0.05). All participants in the control group had CD4 count >200cells/mm3 while 198 (55%) HIV infected subjects had CD4 count ≥200cells/mm3 and 42 (11.7%) had CD4 count <200cells/mm3. A significant association was observed between the CD4 cell count of the patients and their ABO blood group antigens (P<0.05) with blood group A and AB having the highest CD4count.
Conclusion: The outcome of this study reiterates the fact that blood group antigens are involved in immune protection against infectious disease. Blood group A which has been implicated to confer susceptibility in some diseased condition has been observed to confer immunity in this study.

Key-words- CD4 cells, Blood Group Antigens, HIV and Haemoglobin Genotype